الگوی برنامۀ درسی توسعۀ دانش تخصصی تقسیم کسرها مبتنی بر برنامه‏ریزی درسی مدرسه‏‌محور

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای برنامه‏ریزی درسی دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی تهران، دانشکده علوم انسانی

2 دانشیار و عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی تهران، دانشکده علوم انسانی

10.22099/jcr.2020.5825

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر طراحی، اجرا و اعتباریابی الگوی برنامۀ درسی توسعۀ دانش تخصصی تقسیم کسرها، مبتنی بر برنامه‏ریزی درسی مدرسه‌محور است. روش انجام پژوهش، روش ترکیبی با طرح اکتشافی از نوع مدل تدوین ابزار است، که به منظور کشف مؤلفه‏های دانش تخصصی و طراحی الگوی برنامۀ درسی، توسعۀ دانش تخصصی در تقسیم کسرها در دو بخش انجام شد. در بخش اول پژوهش، با بررسی منابع و مصاحبه‎ با متخصصان آموزش ریاضی با روش کیفی تحلیل محتوا و از طریق کدگذاری داده‏ها، مؤلفه‎های دانش تخصصی در تقسیم کسرها شناسایی شدند، و به وسیلۀ پرسش‌نامۀ محقق‏ساخته با روش آماری نسبت روایی محتوا اعتبار آن‌ها تأیید شد. بر اساس مؤلفه‏های تأیید شده، و از طریق مصاحبه با متخصصان برنامه‏ریزی درسی، و آموزش ریاضی با روش دلفی، الگوی برنامۀ درسی پیشنهادی طراحی و اعتبار آن از طریق پرسش‌نامۀ محقق‏ساخته، با استفاده از آزمون آماریt تأیید شد. در بخش دوم پژوهش، الگوی برنامۀ درسی طراحی شده در قالب یک برنامۀ آموزشی با طرح نیمه آزمایشی از نوع پیش‏آزمون ـ پس‏آزمون با گروه کنترل اجرا شد. جامعۀ آماری پژوهش در این بخش کلیۀ دانشجومعلمان آموزش ابتدایی دانشگاه فرهنگیان بودند، که دو گروه از آن‌ها به عنوان نمونۀ در دسترس انتخاب شدند، و به صورت تصادفی در گروه‌های آزمایش و کنترل قرار گرفتند. در این بخش، تقسیم کسرها در گروه آزمایش بر اساس الگوی طراحی شده و در گروه کنترل با روش متداول، توسط پژوهشگر آموزش داده شد، و عملکرد آزمودنی‏ها در حیطه‏های دانشی، مهارتی و نگرشی از طریق پیش‏آزمون و پس‏آزمون با روش‏های آماریt  و تحلیل کواریانس اندازه‌گیری و مقایسه شدند. یافته‏های پژوهش نشان داد که طراحی الگوی برنامۀ درسی توسعۀ دانش تخصصی، باعث ارتقاء دانش و مهارت دانشجومعلمان، و نگرش مثبت آن‌ها نسبت به تقسیم کسرها شده است. 

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