طراحی و اعتباریابی چارچوب برنامه درسی ذهن شاد در دوره ابتدایی- رویکرد ترکیبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار برنامه‌ریزی درسی، بخش روان‌شناسی، مؤسسه آموزش عالی فاطمیه شیراز (نویسنده مسئول)

2 دکتری برنامه‌ریزی درسی، دانشگاه شیراز

3 کارشناس ارشد برنامه‌ریزی درسی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران.

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت آموزشی، دانشگاه شیراز

10.22099/jcr.2021.6052

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر، طراحی و اعتباریابی چارچوب برنامه درسی ذهن شاد در دوره ابتدایی بود. این پژوهش جزء پژوهش‌های ترکیبی، از نوع اکتشافی متوالی و مدل طبقه‌بندی بود که در دو مرحله کیفی و کمّی اجرا شد. بخش کیفی با استفاده از روش فراترکیب تبدیلی و طی شش مرحله‌ ساندلوسکی و باروسو (2007) انجام شد. منابع گردآوری داده‌ها در بخش کیفی هفت پایگاه‌ داده‌ «اسکوپوس»، «امرالد»، «ساینس دایرکت»، «اشپرینگر» و «پروکوئست»، «پایگاه نشریات کشور» و «پایگاه اطلاعات علمی جهاد دانشگاهی» بودند. داده‌ها با استفاده از روش کدگذاری تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. چارچوب برنامه درسی ذهن شاد در دوره ابتدایی شامل عناصر اهداف (درک شادی به عنوان پادزهر در حل مشکلات اجتماعی، عاطفی و رفتاری)، محتوا (آموزش مهارت‌های کارگروهی)، نقش معلم (عامل انگیزاننده)، نقش دانش‌آموز (فعال و تعاملی)، روش‌های تدریس (شعر و آواز)، ارزشیابی (ترکیبی)، مواد آموزشی (ایفای نقش)، نوع برنامه درسی (رسمی و قصد شده)، سطح تحصیلی (دوره ابتدایی)، مشارکت‌کنندگان در طراحی و اجرای برنامه درسی (معلم و دانش‌آموز)، مکان (کلاس درس) و زمان آموزش (45 دقیقه) طراحی شد. سپس بخش کمّی به‌منظور اعتباریابی چارچوب مذکور تعریف گردید. بخش کمّی با استفاده از روش توصیفی پیمایشی و مقیاس محقق­ساخته انجام شد. جامعه آماری در بخش کمّی تمامی معلمان دوره ابتدایی و آشنا با مبانی مشاوره تحصیلی، برنامه‌ریزی درسی و مدیریت آموزشی بودند که با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند، تعداد 65 نفر از معلمان دوره ابتدایی شهر شیراز به عنوان نمونه انتخاب و مقیاس مربوطه بین آنان توزیع گردید. به منظورتعییناعتبارمقیاس،ازروشاعتبارمحتوا و محاسبه شاخص‌های نسبت روایی محتوا و روایی محتوا استفاده شد. پایایی ابزار نیز توسط روش همسانی درونی محاسبه گردید. داده‌های کمّی با استفاده از روش تحلیل عامل تأییدی تجزیه و تحلیل شدند که در نهایت مشخص گردید چارچوب برنامه درسی ذهن شاد در دوره ابتدایی از اعتبار لازم برخوردار می‌باشد. نتیجه اینکه نیاز کودکان، تنها به بهره‌مندی از آموزش مناسب محدود نمی‌شود بلکه کودک، نیاز مهم دیگری هم دارد و آن هم نیاز به شادی و نشاط است.

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