مطالعه چگونگی «آموزش شهروندی» در برنامه‌ی درسی: سنتز پژوهی مطالعات انجام شده در دو دهه‌ی اخیر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار مطالعات برنامه درسی دانشگاه کردستان

10.22099/jcr.2020.5535

چکیده

 هدف این پژوهش سنتز پژوهی چند مورد از پژوهش­هایی است که حول موضوع آموزش شهروندی در برنامه­های درسی در کشورهای مختلف انجام شده است. برای این منظور با استفاده از روش سنتز پژوهی، تحقیقات انجام شده در سطح بین­الملل، در خصوص میزان توجه و اختصاص مفاهیم مربوط به آموزش شهروندی در برنامه­های درسی، به‌صورت نظام‌مند انتخاب، واکاوی محتوایی و دسته‌بندی شده‌اند. در مرحله غربالگری، 11 پژوهشی که این ویژگی‌ها را داشته‌اند، انتخاب و ترکیبی از یافته‌های آنها بر اساس اصول تلفیق، بازاندیشی و بازآرایی داده‌ها، ارائه شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که عوامل مهم محیطی که در ساختار کلی برنامه‌های درسی آموزش شهروندی به آن پرداخته شده عبارت از سنت تاریخی؛ موقعیت جغرافیایی؛ ساختار اجتماعی-سیاسی؛ سیستم اقتصادی و روندهای جهانی است. همچنین نتایج نشان می‌دهد که آموزش شهروندی در برنامه‌های درسی برخی از کشورها، مبتنی بر بیان ارزش‌های فرهنگی جزئی و همچنین قوانین ملی و در برخی دیگر حالت خنثی نسبت به ارزش‌ها داشته‌اند. نهایتاً اینکه نتایج بیانگر آن است که آموزش شهروندی در برنامه‌های درسی، از سه لایه تشکیل می‌شود: آموزش در مورد شهروندی؛ آموزش از طریق شهروندی و آموزش برای شهروندی.

کلیدواژه‌ها


احمدی، پروین و کشاورز دیزجینی، سما(1397). جایگاه آموزش شهروندی و حقوق شهروندی در برنامه درسی مطالعات اجتماعی دوره ابتدایی. مجله اخلاق زیستی(ویژه نامه حقوق شهروندی)، شماره پاییز، 98-55.
سیف نراقی، مریم؛ نادری، عزت الله؛ شریعتمداری، علی و حسینی مهر، علی(1389). بررسی مقایسه­ای دیدگاه کارشناسان و معلمان شهر قزوین به لحاظ نارسایی­های آموزش و تربیت شهروندی در برنامه درسی دوره راهنمایی تحصیلی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مرودشت، فصلنامه رهیافتی نو در مدیریت آموزشی، سال اول، شماره 5، 56-29.
مجلل چوبقلو، محمد علی (1387). تحلیل برنامه ی درسی اجرا شده ی مقطع ابتدایی نظام آموزشی جمهوری اسلامی ایران از بعد تربیت شهروندی. پژوهشنامه تربیتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بجنورد شماره هفدهم ، زمستان 8، 97-67.
Akhtar, S. (2008). The Implementation of Education for Citizenship in Scotland: Recommendation of Approaches for Effective Practice. Improving Schools, 11(1), 33-48.
Baratalipour, M. (2006). Citizenship and Neo-Virtualistic Politics. Tehran: National Studies Institution Publication. (In Persian).
 Pais, A., & Costa, M. (2017). An ideology critique of global citizenship education. Critical Studies in Education. Available online at: http
Barkhordari, M., Jamshidian, A. (2009).Citizenship Education (with Emphasis on Indices), Isfahan, ISBA Publication (In Persian).
 Chappuis, J. (2009). Seven strategies of assessment for learning. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Davies, L. and Graham, P. (2009). Global citizenship education: Challenges and possibilities. Lewin, R. (ed.), The Handbook of Practice and Research in Study Abroad: Higher Education and the Quest for Global Citizenship. New York, Routledge.
Diba Vajari, T. (2009). The place of Citizenship Education in Iranian School PROGRAM'S,3rd International Technology .Education and Development Conference,Valencia,Spania,PP3288-3299.
Fozoni Shirje R, Piri M, Asadiyan S. The challenges of social sciences curriculum in primary school regarding citizenship-social education based on Tyler model. Journal of Theory & Practice in Curriculum, 2016; 7(4): 55-80 (In Persian).
Gert, B. (2008). What Kind of Citizen? What Kind of Democracy? Citizenship of Education and the Scottish Curriculum for Excellence. Scottish Education Review, 2 (8), 38-52.
 Gough, D., Oliver, S., &Thomas, J. (2012). An introduction to systematic reviews. UK: Sage.
Grossman, D. (2008). Democracy, Citizenship Education and Inclusion: A Multidimensional Approach. Prospects, 38 pp.35-46.
Herbert, Y., & Sears, A. (2009). Citizenship education. Canada Education Association. http://www.cea.ca/media/en/citizenship~education.pdf
Hoskins, B. (2006). Framework for the Development of Indicators on Active Citizenship and Education and Training for Active Citizenship. Ispra: Joint Research Centre/CRELL.
Hoskins, B., Jesinghaus, J., Mascherini, M., Munda, G., Nardo, M., Saisana, M., Van Nijlen, D. and Villalba, E. (2006). Measuring Active Citizenship in Europe. CRELL Research Paper 4. Ispra: Joint Research Centre/CRELL.
 Rouan, M. (2009). Urban Citizenship and the Right to the City: the Case of Undocumented Immigrants in Marseille. UCL. Working Papers No. 135. ISSN 1474- 3280.
Hoskins, B., Villalba, E., Van Nijlen, D. and Barber, C. (2011). Measuring Civic Competence in Europe: A Composite Indicator based on the IEA Civic Education Study 1999 for 14 year olds in School. Ispra: Joint Research Centre/CRELL.
 Kerr, D. (2008). Citizenship Education: An International Comparison. International Review of Curriculum and Assessment Frameworks Paper, 4. London: QCA. 
Kiwan, D. (2014). Emerging forms of citizenship in the Arab world. Isin, E. and Nyers, P. (eds), Routledge Global Handbook of Citizenship Studies. London and New York, Routledge.
Lin, A. (2015). Citizenship education in American schools and its role in developing civic engagement: a review of the research. Educational Review, 67(1), 1-30.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2013.813440.
Nelson, J. and Kerr, D. (2006). Active Citizenship in INCA Countries: Definitions, Policies, Practices and Outcomes (Final Report). Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (England), National Foundation for Educational Research, and International Review of Curriculum and Assessment Frameworks (INCA). https://www.nfer.ac.uk/publications/QAC02/QAC02.pdf (Accessed 19 April 2015.)
Nigro, S. (2013). Employment for civic education. Presentation at the UNESCO Forum on Global Citizenship Education, Bangkok, Thailand.
Ntheetsang, F., & Jotia. L. (2012). Exploring Citizenship Education: Cultural Study Curriculum in Botswana. US-China Education Review B 3 (2012) 337-34.
Osler, A. (2011). Teacher Interpretations of Citizenship Education: National Identity, Cosmopolitan Ideals, and Political Realities. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 43 (1) 1- 24.
Philippou, S., Keating, A. and Ortloff, D. H. (2009). Citizenship education curricula: comparing the multiple meanings of supra-national citizenship in Europe and beyond. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41 (2), pp. 291-299.
 Pike, G. (2008). Reconstructing the legend: Educating for global citizenship. Abdi, A. and Shultz, L. (eds), Educating for Human Rights and Global Citizenship. New York, State University of New York Press, pp. 223-237.
Pykett, J. (2010). Citizenship education and narratives of pedagogy. Citizenship Studies, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 621-635. Quaynor, L. 2012. Citizenship education in post-conflict contexts: A review of the literature. Education Citizenship and Social Justice, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 33-57.
Quezada, R. L. (Ed.). (2010). Internationalization of teacher education: Creating globally competent teachers and teacher educators for the 21st century. Teaching Education, Vol. 21, No. 1.
Salema, M. H. (2012). Linking teachers' competences to students' competences. Pedagogical Processes. In: M. Print and D. Lange, eds. Schools, Curriculum and civic Education for Building Democratic Citizens. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, pp. 129-144.
 Schulz, W. et al, (2016). International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2016 Assessment Framework. Cham: Springer.
Schulz, W., Ainley, J., Fraillon, J., Kerr, D. and Losito, B. (2010). Initial Findings from the IEA Civic and Citizenship Education Study. Amsterdam, International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA).
Sigauke, A., T. (2013). Citizenship Education in the Social Science Subjects: An Analysis of the Teacher Education Curriculum for Secondary Schools. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38 (11) 125-139.
 Sigler, T. H., & Rhee, K. S. (2014). Unlocking Learning Discovering the Keys to Effective Assessment. Journal of Management Education, 38(3), 303-312.
Sliwka, A., (2006). Citizenship Education as the Responsibility of a Whole School: Structural and Cultural Implications. In: A. Sliwka, M. Diedrich and M. Hofer, eds. Citizenship Education. Theory - Research - Practice. Münster: Waxmann, pp. 7-19.
Sundström, M. and Fernández, C. (2013). Citizenship education and diversity in liberal societies: Theory and policy in a comparative perspective. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice Journal, 8 (2), pp. 103-117.
 Tan BP, Mahadi Naidu NB, Osman ZJ.(2017). Moral values and good citizens in a multi-ethnic society: A content analysis of moral education textbooks in Malaysia. The Journal of Social Studies Research; 42(2): 119-134. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jssr.
Tawil, S. (2013). Education for ‘Global Citizenship’: A framework for discussion. UNESCO Education Research and Foresight (ERF) Working Papers Series, No. 7. Paris, UNESCO.
Ten Dam, G. et al. (2011). Measuring young people's citizenship competences. European Journal of Education, 46 (3), pp. 354-372.
UNESCO and ECOWAS. (2013). Education for a Culture of Peace, Human Rights, Citizenship, Democracy and Regional Integration, ECOWAS Reference Manual. Dakar, UNESCO. http://www.educationalapaix-ao.org/
UNESCO, IBE & APCEIU. (2017). Global Citizenship Concepts in Curriculum Guidelines of 10 Countries: Comparative Analysis. In-Progress Reflections No. 9 on Current and Critical Issues in Curriculum, Learning and Assessment. [Pdf] http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002477/247788E.pdf [Accessed April 2017].
UNESCO. (2014). Global Citizenship Education: Preparing Learners for the Challenges of the 21st Century. Paris, UNESCO.
UNESCO; & GEFI-YAG. (2017). Measuring Global Citizenship Education A Collection of Practices and Tools. Working group contributed to the drafting of this report but the final content is ultimately the responsibility of CUE, UNESCO, and GEFI-YAG.  
 Waterson, A., R, & Moffa, D., E. (2016). Citizenship education for proactive democratic life in rural communities. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice; 11(3): 213-230.
 Yarmohammadean,M ,Foroguy., A ,Jafari E ,Gholtash,A. (2008). Critical survey of curriculum Elements in the progressive and conservative Citizenship Educational Approaches. Curriculum planning, (Issue 17). P 27. (In Persian).
Zahabioun, S. et al. (2013). Global citizenship education and its implications for curriculum goals at the age of globalization. International Education Studies, 6 (1), pp. 195-206.
Zahabioun, S. et al. (2013). Global citizenship education and its implications for curriculum goals at the age of globalization. International Education Studies, 6 (1), pp. 195-206.
Zajda, J. (2009). Nation-building, identity and citizenship education: Introduction. In: J. Zajda, H. Daun and L. Saha, eds. Nation-Building, Identity and Citizenship Education. London: Springer, pp. 1-11.