تبیین مفهوم کارآمدی فرهنگی معلمان در مواجهه با بسترهای دارای تنوع فرهنگی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای برنامه‌ریزی درسی، دانشکده علوم انسانی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استاد مطالعات برنامه درسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، دانشکده علوم انسانی

3 استادیار برنامه درسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، دانشکدهروانشناسی و علوم تربیتی

4 استادیار تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، دانشکده علوم انسانی

10.22099/jcr.2020.5534

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف تبیین کارآمدی فرهنگی معلمان انجام ‌شده ‌است. برای نیل به این هدف از روش مرور نظام‌مند پژوهش استفاده شد. این مرور نظام‎مند از نوع کیفی می‌باشد که روشی برای یکپارچه‌سازی یا مقایسه کردن یافته‌های پژوهش کیفی است. دانش انباشته­ی ناشی از این روند به تفسیری تازه و تبیینی اثربخش از مفهوم کارآمدی فرهنگی معلمان منجر شده است. در این پژوهش 5 رویکرد بررسی شد و رویکرد منتخب با‌توجه به مفهوم کارآمدی فرهنگی تشریح شد. نمونه پژوهش بیش از 40 مقاله معتبر و 6 کتاب از نویسندگان شاخص حوزه فرهنگ و تربیت بود که با استفاده از کلیدواژه‌های «رویکردهای فرهنگی به تربیت»، «فرهنگ و تربیت»، «صلاحیت فرهنگی»، «کارآمدی فرهنگی»، «تبحر فرهنگی»، «پداگوژی برخوردار از ربط فرهنگی»، بطور نظام‌مند مرور شده‌اند. یافته‌ها نشان داد بیش­ترین تأکید بر اثربخشی نقش معلم در مواجهه با تنوع فرهنگی، در «پداگوژی برخوردار از ربط فرهنگی» مشاهده می‌شود. این پداگوژی به‌طور‌خاص بر بازتعریف نقش معلم تأکید می‌کند. دو بعد دانشی و عملکردی در شکل‌گیری کارآمدی فرهنگی معلم نقش تعیین‌کننده‌ای ایفا می‌کنند. بعد دانش، شامل 1) شناخت از دانش‌آموزان (آگاهی از پیشینه دانش‎آموزان، شناخت از خواسته‌ها و علایق برخواسته از فرهنگ آنان) و 2) دانش پداگوژیکی است. بعد عملکردی بر 1) خودتأملی 2) ساختن رابطه­ی معنادار با دانش‌آموزان و 3) پیشرفت دانش‌آموزان متمرکز است. مجموعه­ی این قابلیت‌ها در مفهوم «کارآمدی فرهنگی» معلم قابل مفهوم‌پردازی است که منجر به پشرفت واقعی برای دانش‌آموزان متنوع در سه حیطه‌ی پیشرفت تحصیلی، شایستگی فرهنگی و آگاهی سیاسی– اجتماعی خواهد شد.

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